There is an increasing amount of master athletes participating in sport. Therefore, understanding how training needs to be adapted is critically important.
Master athletes are generally considered people who are over the age of 35 years (as opposed to senior athletes who are older than 50 years) and trains or takes part in athletic competitions. Furthermore, There are three types of master athletes: ones who have been consistently training most of their life (advanced), ones who stopped but have been through structured training in the past (Intermediate), lastly, athletes new to the sport with little to no prior experience (Beginner). Understanding which type of Master athlete you are will either help tailor your training or decide which BCA training plan to pick.
But what are the age-related declines?
Current evidence supports a 10% decline in VO2 max every ten years. Which is in part due to a reduction in maximal cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped around the body by the heart per minute) caused by a reduction in max heart rate. However, despite a decline in VO2 max, lactate threshold (LT) tends to remain the same in proportion to VO2 max. For example, if you have a VO2 max of 65 mL/kg/min and your LT was at 37.7 mL/kg/min of VO2 max (58%) then in ten years time your VO2 max would decline to 59 mL/kg/min (10% decline), but your LT would still be around 58% of 59 mL/kg/min.
Additional central factors include decreased stroke volume (amount of blood pumped in one beat of the heart) which is affected by a decline in total blood volume.
Age related decline in skeletal muscle mass (also known as sarcopenia) begins around 35 years and effects type II muscle fibers most (fast twitch). By the age of 80 years 50% of muscle fibers a have disappeared from the limb. The size and contractile performance of type I muscle fibers (slow twitch) also decline. So how can training accomodate all of these factors?
Repeating the same intervals over time results in less improvements/adaptations made. It is therefore, advised that LT intervals (high zone 3/4) start with longer interval duration to focus on endurance. As training becomes more race specific shorten the interval length, but increase the intensity and decreases the rest period. Example below:
1. 20 minutes @ 085% + 5 minutes @ 65% x 2 - tempo intervals